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Macadamia Nuts – Which is Better Nutrition Raw Or Dry Roasted?



Macadamia Nuts – Which is Better Nutrition Raw Or Dry Roasted?

Eating both raw and roasted macadamia nuts provides a burst of goodness, however, they have different nutritional profiles and health benefits.

Raw macadamia nuts are a good source of healthy fats, including monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, which can help improve heart health and reduce inflammation. They also contain fiber, protein, and important micronutrients such as magnesium, potassium, and vitamin B1 (thiamin). Some studies have suggested that consuming raw nuts can be beneficial for weight management, as they can help increase feelings of fullness and reduce calorie intake.

NOW Foods, Macadamia Nuts, Dry Roasted with Sea Salt, Source of Fiber, Gluten-Free and Certified Non-GMO, 9-Ounce (Packaging May Vary)

Dry roasted macadamia nuts have a slightly different nutrient profile due to the roasting process. While roasting can cause some loss of heat-sensitive nutrients, such as vitamin C, it can also increase the bioavailability of certain minerals, including iron and zinc. Roasting can also enhance the flavor and texture of the nuts, which may make them more appealing to some individuals.

However, it is important to note that dry roasted nuts can sometimes contain added salt or other flavorings, which can increase their sodium or calorie content. Excessive sodium intake can contribute to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to choose roasted nuts that are low in salt or opt for raw nuts if salt intake is a concern.

In summary, both raw and dry roasted macadamia nuts can be nutritious, and the optimal choice may depend on individual preferences and dietary needs. Raw nuts can provide a good source of healthy fats and micronutrients, while dry roasted nuts may offer increased mineral bioavailability and improved taste and texture.

Nutrient (per 1 ounce, or 28 grams)Raw Macadamia NutsDry Roasted Macadamia Nuts
Fat23 g22 g
Saturated fat3.4 g3 g
Carbohydrates4 g4 g
Fiber2.4 g2.4 g
Protein2.2 g2.2 g
Magnesium33 mg37 mg
Potassium103 mg104 mg
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)0.3 mg0.2 mg
Iron0.7 mg1.3 mg
Zinc0.6 mg0.9 mg
table comparing the nutritional content of raw and dry roasted macadamia nuts

Note that these values are approximate and may vary depending on the specific type of macadamia nuts and the roasting method used. Raw macadamia nuts may offer slightly more thiamin, while dry roasted nuts may provide slightly more iron and zinc. Both forms of macadamia nuts can be a good source of healthy fats, fiber, and other important nutrients. When choosing dry roasted nuts, it is important to check the label for added salt or other flavorings, which can increase their sodium or calorie content.

Note that these values are approximate and may vary depending on the specific type of macadamia nuts and the roasting method used. Raw macadamia nuts may offer slightly more thiamin, while dry roasted nuts may provide slightly more iron and zinc. Both forms of macadamia nuts can be a good source of healthy fats, fiber, and other important nutrients. When choosing dry roasted nuts, it is important to check the label for added salt or other flavorings, which can increase their sodium or calorie content.

Macadamia nuts are packed with essential nutrients that can benefit your health. These include protein, fat, vitamins and minerals.

They contain plenty of beneficial monounsaturated fats, which have been linked to a lower risk of heart disease and other ailments.

They are also rich in thiamine, an essential nutrient for energy conversion. Ensuring you get this nutrient through food is key for optimal health.



One ounce of raw macadamia nuts provides an incredible 19 grams of protein! Additionally, they’re an excellent source of magnesium and vitamin E which aid in hormone regulation as well as increased energy levels. Furthermore, these nuts also contain omega-3 fatty acids which have been known to keep your mood balanced.

Another of macadamia nuts’ advantages is that it’s a healthy and low-calorie snack you can enjoy anytime. Furthermore, they contain high amounts of fiber and protein which may help to keep you full for longer, helping prevent overeating.

They’re also an excellent source of monounsaturated fats, which may lower cholesterol levels and protect the heart. Furthermore, they contain powerful antioxidants which reduce inflammation and fight signs of aging.

According to Healthline, Macadamia nuts also contain essential vitamins and minerals like iron, calcium, and potassium that promote good health by protecting against chronic illnesses like cancer and heart disease. These essential nutrients may help you combat stress on a daily basis as well as support chronic illnesses like cancer or cardiovascular issues.

These healthy, natural ingredients make an excellent addition to any diet plan. Use them as a topping on salads and desserts or try them as croutons in a bowl of oatmeal.


Consume these nuts raw for optimal flavor and nutrition, though you can also find them dry-roasted or oil-roasted. Dry-roasted nuts may be suitable for those wishing to reduce their saturated fat intake.

Roasting can do significant damage to the quality of nuts, so it’s essential that you select them with care. To achieve the best results, buy nuts that have been properly roasted without any additives or extra oils added during preparation.


Macadamia nuts are an excellent source of fat and contain many other essential nutrients to promote good health and beauty. Not only that, but these nuts also boast antioxidants which fight free radicals that may lead to various health issues.

One study revealed that people who consumed at least 30g of nuts daily were less likely to develop cardiovascular disease than those who didn’t, due to the heart-healthy monounsaturated fats they provided which can lower cholesterol and keep arteries clear.

Aside from being beneficial for your heart, almonds also aid in weight management and blood sugar regulation. That is because they contain healthy fats which can fill you up and prevent you from snacking on empty calories.


Eating more plant foods, like nuts, can increase your antioxidant levels. This may help protect you against chronic illnesses like cancer. Furthermore, adding plant-based protein into your diet may improve digestion and allow for better absorption of essential minerals for good health.

Thankfully, you don’t need to spend hours roasting macadamia nuts in order to reap their full benefits. A quick roast or light toast will do the trick in no time.

This type of cooking helps preserve the nutritional quality of macadamia nuts. Heat can denature or deactivate beneficial proteins and enzymes necessary for proper body functioning, so it’s essential that they not be denatured or deactivated.

Another way to reap the benefits of macadamia nuts is by adding them to savory dishes, such as salads or soups. You could also incorporate them into desserts like ice cream or smoothies for extra indulgence.

Macadamia nuts make an excellent base for homemade nut butter, and can be added to your daily snacks to help you stay on track with weight-loss goals.



Eating fiber-rich foods helps you feel full, and macadamia nuts are no exception. Not only do they contain high amounts of dietary fiber (over 4 grams per ounce), but their low carbohydrates content means there won’t be any sudden spikes in blood sugar levels that might lead to cravings later.

They contain protein and fats which slow the absorption of sugar, creating a feeling of being full for longer. This helps combat the hunger hormone ghrelin.

Furthermore, they provide an excellent source of potassium and magnesium. These minerals help regulate blood pressure while encouraging bone and tooth mineralization.

Macadamia nuts contain healthy fats that not only promote heart health but may also aid weight loss. A 2004 study revealed that women who consumed macadamia nuts, coconut and butter for three weeks lost an average of one pound.

Macadamia nuts are an excellent source of iron, an essential nutrient that can help treat and prevent anemia. Furthermore, they contain flavonoids – antioxidants which reduce inflammation in your body and protect you against chronic illnesses like cancer.


Macadamia nuts are an excellent source of phosphorus, which helps build strong bones and teeth. While these minerals may not be found in large amounts in other foods, macadamia nuts provide plenty of them.

Another health advantage of these nuts is that they can improve your gut microbiome, which plays a significant role in overall wellbeing. They contain soluble fiber that feeds beneficial gut bacteria, helping reduce inflammation and protect against digestive conditions.


Raw macadamia nuts are an abundant source of essential vitamins, minerals, protein, fiber and healthy fats. Furthermore, they’re low in sugar and have a low glycemic index. Furthermore, these nutritious nuts provide calcium, phosphorus, manganese, copper, iron, vitamin B1 (thiamin), selenium zinc magnesium.

They contain omega-9 fatty acids which may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, tocotrienols and other antioxidants may help protect against cancer.

Some research has suggested that people who eat more nuts may have a lower risk of developing cancer. Although further investigation is necessary, the nutrients in macadamia nuts could potentially help reduce cancer risks by combatting free radicals.


Macadamia nuts contain dietary fiber which may aid digestion and reduce inflammation in the digestive tract. Furthermore, it aids weight loss, promotes heart health, and regulates blood sugar levels.

Research suggests that including macadamia nuts in your diet may reduce the risk of developing ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, some scientists believe that oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid found in macadamia nuts, helps regulate blood pressure.

This nutrient-rich nut is packed with omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin E and antioxidants that may reduce your risk for heart disease and cancer. Furthermore, they contain a form of vitamin D to aid calcium absorption.

Plant sterols found in nuts can also be beneficial to those with high cholesterol, similar to the sterols found in statins. Thus, nuts provide a source of plant-based sterols that may aid in decreasing levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol.

For a healthier alternative to processed snack foods, try roasting or seasoning macadamia nuts. Be sure to read the label to make sure there are no added sugars or oils in these prepared nuts.



Macadamia nuts are packed with essential minerals and vitamins for optimal health, such as iron, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, magnesium, potassium and dietary fibre. These nutrients work together to support your overall wellbeing.

Macadamia nuts contain essential minerals that support bone and teeth health. Phosphorus, calcium and manganese are all necessary for strong bones while magnesium aids in their transport and absorption. Furthermore, a high intake of these nutrients helps keep lipid profiles balanced as well as supporting cardiovascular wellness.

Macadamia nuts contain beneficial polyphenols and antioxidants that can shield your body from dangerous free radicals. These protective agents reduce oxidative stress and inflammation that could otherwise lead to chronic diseases like diabetes or heart disease.

These nuts are packed with thiamine, an essential vitamin for optimal brain functioning. Furthermore, they boast plenty of tocotrienols which may protect your body against cancer and other illnesses.

However, it is essential to roast macadamia nuts correctly in order to retain their nutritional value. Excess oxidation during roasting can cause the nuts to become rancid and lose their flavor.


Therefore, it is essential to determine the ideal temperature and timing when roasting macadamia nuts. Your oven’s capabilities as well as what type of nut you are using will determine this ideal setting.

It is essential to remember that raw macadamia nuts can spoil if stored in an unhygienic environment. The best way to store them is in a cool place away from sunlight or direct heat, such as the refrigerator or pantry. They may also need to be soaked before use to maintain their freshness and flavor.

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How to Find Nutrition Value of Raw Meat I Purchase in Market




1. Look at the label

Labels on meats and poultry typically display the nutritional information based on the raw weight, unless specified otherwise. When meat is cooked, it usually loses about 25% of its weight, meaning a 4 oz label corresponds to roughly 3 oz after cooking. To accurately calculate the protein, fat, and calorie content per serving, divide this adjusted cooked weight by the number of portions you plan to eat. This simple approach encourages healthier eating habits!

2. Check the website

Nutritionally speaking, raw meat does not come with a set nutritional value. To determine its true nutritional worth, read the ingredients and nutrition labels carefully – something you should do for any food item, but especially meat. As there is often misinformation out there, do your due diligence before purchasing anything; for instance, check the website of the vendor to ensure they use traceable and ethically sourced ingredients or ask directly if they have any nutritional facts available.

3. Ask the seller

When shopping for a nutritious serving of meat, there are a few things to consider. First and foremost, select your cut carefully from sustainable sources like pastured or grass fed animals. If unsure where to begin with your shopping list, ask your favorite butcher for their recommendations based on individual dietary needs and lifestyle. Additionally, pay close attention to the quality of the meat such as its moisture content, texture and smell before purchasing.

4. Check the packaging

When purchasing raw meat, inspecting its packaging for firmness and no tears or holes is essential. It should feel cold to touch and have no odor. A red liquid at the bottom may seem unappetizing but this is actually myoglobin – a protein responsible for giving meat its color. This also keeps food fresh by creating an environment free from bacteria-filled environments.

how to find nutrition value of raw meat i purchase in market

You may notice absorbent pads underneath many packaged meat products; these protect meat from getting contaminated by liquids trapped inside their packaging; therefore, checking with recycling facilities before discarding these pads is recommended.


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How to Make a Raw Nutrition Bar at Home



Raw energy bars are a great choice for a healthy and delicious snack on the go. Here is a simple recipe for making your own at home:


  • 1 cup almonds
  • 1 cup dates, pitted
  • 1/2 cup unsweetened shredded coconut
  • 1/4 cup chia seeds
  • 2 tablespoons raw honey
  • 1 tablespoon coconut oil
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
  • Pinch of sea salt


  1. Place the almonds in a food processor and pulse until they are roughly chopped.
  2. Add the pitted dates, shredded coconut, chia seeds, honey, coconut oil, vanilla extract, and sea salt to the food processor.
  3. Pulse the mixture until it starts to come together and form a sticky dough.
  4. Line an 8×8 inch baking dish with parchment paper.
  5. Transfer the mixture to the baking dish and press it down firmly with your hands.
  6. Chill the mixture in the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes to set.
  7. Once the mixture has set, remove it from the baking dish and cut it into bars.
  8. Store the raw nutrition bars in an airtight container in the refrigerator for up to 2 weeks.

You can also customize this recipe by adding in other ingredients such as dried fruits, nuts, or protein powder to create a variety of different flavors. These bars are perfect for a quick breakfast, snack or post-workout fuel. Enjoy!

If you’re an athlete or simply want to maximize the nutritional value of your food, a raw nutrition bar is an ideal option. These bars are nutrient-rich and packed with fibre, protein, and healthy fats for increased energy levels and sustained energy throughout the day.

These no-bake energy bars are simple to make and customizable to your personal taste. Simply add fruit, oats, nuts/seeds or other mix-ins for the perfect bar!


Raw nutrition bars are an ideal way to get your daily nutrients without adding extra calories. They’re especially ideal for athletes who require a quick snack between meals.


The great news is that you can easily make these delicious treats yourself at home. All you need are some basic ingredients and some time to mix them up.

One of the key ingredients you will need for a homemade raw nutrition bar is dates. Dates provide healthy sugar and antioxidants while being an excellent source of fiber that may help lower cholesterol levels.

how to make a raw nutrition bar at home

Coconut oil is another important ingredient, providing healthy fats. Not only that, but it may help prevent heart disease and stroke as well.

Other ingredients you can include in your raw nutrition bars are oats, peanut butter, cocoa powder, protein powder and natural honey or maple syrup. Doing so will guarantee you get all the important vitamins, minerals and fibers from your food intake.

Add your favourite adaptogenic powders, like ashwagandha or ginseng, to boost the nutritional value of these bars. Furthermore, adding ground flax seed will increase their fiber content significantly.

Once all ingredients are prepped, simply blend them together until you achieve a dough-like texture. Press this mixture into a pan and chill until firm.


These bars are simple to make and a nutritious addition to any healthy diet. They can be eaten as breakfast, midmorning snack or meal replacement – perfect for athletes who need something quick between workouts.

Warrior RAW Protein Bar is an irresistibly tasty and nutritious protein bar that provides all essential amino acids. It’s suitable for vegans and gluten intolerant individuals alike, providing a convenient source of energy that can be taken as pre-workout, emergency energy booster, or travel food.


Making a bar that lives up to its promise as an indulgent snack requires selecting the correct ingredients. Key components that go into bar formulation include protein source, sweetener, fiber source, fats/oils/emulsifiers/vitamins/minerals/nutraceuticals and flavors.

Finding the ideal ingredient for a bar is no small feat. You may have to experiment with different amounts and types of components until you find your ideal balance. The ideal nutritional bars will have an optimal combination of quality proteins, healthy fats, nutritious carbohydrates and minimal amounts of sugar.

One popular type of nutrition bar is the whole food bar. These typically feature various fruits, nuts, seeds and other plant-based ingredients compressed into a bar form. One major advantage of these bars is that they tend to be lower in calories and fat than their processed counterparts – particularly helpful for those trying to shed some pounds!


If you’re looking to make your own raw energy bar at home, there are plenty of recipes online. The key is to first decide what flavor profile and then search the internet for inspiration.

There are plenty of options when it comes to creating your own bar with just a few key components. Some suggestions include pulse the ingredients in either a blender or food processor before mixing them together for an even smoother mix.

Before scooping or shaping the mixture into bars or small balls, let it rest for a few minutes. This allows the ingredients to air dry slightly and makes them easier to stick together. Once dry, you’re ready!


Raw nutrition bars should contain key components like protein, healthy fats and low-glycemic carbohydrates. They’re also packed with essential vitamins, minerals, enzymes and phytonutrients – perfect for anyone on a Paleo, Primal, GAPS or SCD diet as well as those on low carb, raw or vegan diets; athletes; people with health challenges – you name it!

These bars are an affordable way to create homemade raw nutrition bars without breaking the bank. You can customize them with flavors you love and use a range of sweeteners such as fruits, honey and maple syrup. For even greater nutritional benefits, use multiple protein powders or combine them all for extra nutritional punch!


The initial step in making raw energy bars is to pulse together all dry ingredients. Then, add wet ingredients and pulse until a dough forms. Slowly add more water until your mixture forms an even ball that can easily be formed into bars. If your dough seems too crumbly for rolling into bars, add a small amount of coconut oil for more firmness or add ground flax seed or your favorite adaptogenic potion for additional nutritional benefit.


If you’re searching for a low-calorie, nutritious snack to munch on, raw nutrition bars are your perfect choice. You can even make extra to store in the freezer for later use – just remember to refrigerate them promptly after opening to prevent flavors from fading and keep them from becoming dry and stale. To ensure these bars stay in top condition over time, use quality food storage containers with lids to avoid mold growth. Best of all? They’re easy to transport in lunch bags or purses without sacrificing flavor or texture!

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How is Biotin Bioavailability Affected by Raw Egg Consumption?




Biotin, a water-soluble B vitamin, is essential for synthesizing glucose and fatty acids. It is especially important for women during pregnancy.

Some people worry that eating raw eggs in large amounts daily could lead to biotin deficiency. However, this is unlikely the case since raw eggs do not contain the protein avidin which could prevent absorption of biotin.

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in energy metabolism and maintaining healthy hair, skin, and nails. Raw egg consumption has been found to interfere with biotin bioavailability due to the presence of avidin, a protein found in raw egg whites.

Avidin has a high affinity for biotin, which means that it can bind to biotin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. When raw eggs are consumed, the avidin in the egg white can bind to biotin in the diet and prevent its absorption. This can lead to a deficiency of biotin over time.

However, cooking the egg denatures the avidin protein, rendering it unable to bind to biotin. This means that the bioavailability of biotin is not affected when eggs are cooked, and the body is able to absorb and utilize biotin from cooked eggs. Therefore, it is generally recommended to consume eggs that are fully cooked to ensure adequate biotin intake and prevent the risk of biotin deficiency.


It is important to note that biotin deficiency is rare in healthy individuals who consume a balanced diet. However, individuals who consume large amounts of raw egg whites or those who have a genetic disorder that affects biotin metabolism may be at risk for biotin deficiency. If you have concerns about your biotin intake, it is recommended to speak with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian.

Biotin Is a Water-Soluble Vitamin

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin essential for the body’s metabolism. It aids the body in using carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids as energy sources; additionally, it aids cells in synthesizing proteins.

Brewer’s yeast, cooked eggs, sardines, nuts (almonds, peanuts, pecans), and nut butters are all sources of naturally occurring selenium. You may also purchase it as a dietary supplement.

Biotin, which the body cannot synthesize on its own, must be obtained through food sources. It is essential in supporting proper immune function and brain development – particularly important for pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers.

Most people consume enough biotin, but some may be at risk for deficiency. These include those diagnosed with genetic disorders that prevent the body from producing the enzyme responsible for breaking down biotin, those who drink excessively or take certain medications which inhibit its absorption.


Raw egg consumption may lead to biotin deficiency due to a protein called avidin, which blocks its absorption by the body. However, once cooked, avidin is denatured and biotin can be readily absorbed by the body.

Biotin is typically ingested as food proteins that are broken down by digestive proteases and released to the small intestine where it absorbs into enterocytes. A high-affinity sodium/multivitamin cotransporter in these enterocytes transports biotin from the food protein into cell membrane, where it then travels into circulation before excreted unchanged through urine.

Studies have suggested that taking large doses of biotin may aid those living with diabetes in controlling their blood glucose levels. This is likely because biotin helps produce insulin, which regulates glucose concentrations.

Biotin may benefit hair, skin and nail health in several ways. Studies have demonstrated that it can increase the strength and growth of nails for women with brittle nails; further research indicates it could even aid those suffering from taste loss.

Biotin Deficiency Is Rare

Biotin, also known as vitamin B7, is a water-soluble B vitamin essential for producing glucose and fatty acids in your body. You can find it in foods like eggs, meat, fish, and vegetables.


Biotin deficiency is rare, but some individuals with certain genetic conditions that prevent the body from properly using it can become low in this vitamin. These include holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency (also called multiple carboxylase deficiency), biotinidase deficiency, and the inability to transport biotin into cells.

Patients with these disorders should receive lifelong biotin supplementation to maintain healthy levels of this essential vitamin. Untreated, the condition can lead to serious symptoms such as hearing loss, blurred vision, and learning difficulties if not caught and treated early.

Even if you do have one of these conditions, eating raw eggs should not cause a biotin deficiency. This is because avidin, the protein in egg whites, binds to biotin so that it cannot be absorbed in the small intestine.

Due to the destruction of this protein by heat, eating large quantities of raw eggs without becoming deficient in this essential nutrient is possible. To increase your intake of this B vitamin, however, it’s best to either avoid raw eggs or consume them in small and frequent doses.

It is also worth noting that certain medications can lower your biotin level, so be sure to monitor your health and consult your doctor for a treatment that works for you. Anticonvulsant therapy, for instance, may reduce biotin levels if taken for an extended period of time.


However, including biotin in your diet is generally beneficial if you are pregnant or trying to become pregnant. This is because pregnant women require more biotin for proper growth and development of their unborn child.

Biotin deficiency is a serious condition that can cause permanent damage such as hearing loss, vision problems and learning disabilities. If your family history of this condition runs in your family, ask your doctor about screening to protect you.

Biotin Deficiency Is More Common in Women

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that plays an essential role in helping your body convert carbohydrates and fat into glucose. Additionally, it aids the metabolism of amino acids and proteins to build new cells and tissues.

Vitamin B1 deficiency can lead to various symptoms, such as thinning hair, red scaly rash around the mouth and eyes (known as “biotin deficiency rash”), brittle nails, and seizures.

Biotin deficiency usually begins during the first weeks and months of life and can have serious consequences if left untreated. These individuals are at an increased risk for developing life-altering conditions like seizure disorder, lung disease, brain damage, and cancer.


Biotin deficiency can be caused by either an inherited disorder called biotinidase deficiency or certain medications that reduce its levels in your body. In some cases, low levels of biotin may also be due to another health issue or condition like thyroid disorder, vitamin B12 deficiency, or iron deficiency.

Biotinidase deficiency occurs when a gene mutation prevents the activity of an enzyme responsible for biotin absorption, called holocarboxylase synthetase.

Holocarboxylase synthase, an essential enzyme for biotin absorption from food sources, must be present to function. Without it, your body cannot use biotin properly and you may experience constipation.

It is easy to get enough biotin by eating foods that naturally contain it or taking a vitamin supplement with biotin. There are various kinds of vitamins available, including those that only contain biotin as well as those that include other essential vitamins.

Some studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of certain supplements on nail, hair and skin health. However, further investigation is necessary to definitively prove whether they truly work.


Women are more vulnerable to developing biotin deficiency than men due to their increased need for this vitamin during pregnancy. Biotin helps produce carboxylases and histones, both essential building blocks of embryonic development.

Biotin Deficiency Is More Common in Smokers

Biotin is one of the B complex vitamins, meaning it converts fats and carbohydrates into energy to power your body’s functions. Additionally, it keeps blood glucose and cholesterol levels normal as well. Finally, Biotin plays an essential role in skin health as well as producing keratin – the protein responsible for giving nails and hair their strength – which gives your nails and hair their strength.

Biotin deficiency is a rare but serious condition that can occur if your body doesn’t get enough of this vitamin or fails to absorb and use it correctly. Common symptoms include brittle, thinning hair and split nails; weakness or loss of muscle/joint function; fatigue; numbness/tingling in hands/feet; dry skin with itchy flaky patches, slow heart rate fluctuations and low body temperature.

People who don’t get enough dietary biotin or can’t absorb it properly due to conditions in their gut are at risk for deficiency. These include heavy alcohol consumption, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic diarrhea, pregnancy, kidney dialysis and taking certain prescription drugs that interfere with biotin metabolism.

Researchers observed that smokers excreted 30% less biotin than nonsmoking controls (P 0.02). The ratio of urinary bisnorbiotin and biotin sulfoxide to biotin increased in smokers, suggesting an accelerated metabolism of this nutrient. Furthermore, smokers excreted 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, a biotin metabolite indicating marginal tissue deficiency.


Smoking increases the rate of catabolism for several nutrients, such as lipids, antioxidants and B vitamins. Particularly, biotin metabolism is affected since even marginal deficiency can be teratogenic in mammals. Studies conducted on fetuses born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy have demonstrated an increased likelihood of abnormal brain, spinal cord or limb development in these babies.

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